Wednesday, June 06, 2007

Malays Are Not a Race

Bergen is one of my favourite bloggers. He is witty, smart, funny, irreverent, sometimes self-effacing, and a lot more.
He sent me a very long comment from a commentator to his posting on "Freedom to Choose A Religion". The commentator by the name of Micheal Chick, says that there is no such thing as a/the Malay race. Of course, many of us would beg to differ.

I have sought Bergen's permission to reproduce his message (in bold) , followed by Micheal Chick's comment (in italics).

I reproduce here the comments posted by a Micheal Chick in my blog. Maybe it has nothing to do with your father's struggle, or maybe it has. I don't have the brain for this. You don't have to post it in the comments box if you don't want to.

"It's been interesting to read such free-flowing comments on an all "Malaysian" free for all. While we are on the subject, how many of you have read the book entitled "Contesting Malayness"? Written by a Professor of National University of Singapore. Cost S$32 (about). It reflects the Anthropologists views that there is no such race as the "Malays" to begin with. If we follow the original migration of the Southern Chinese of 6,000yrs ago, they moved into Taiwan, (now the Alisan), then into the Phillipines (now the Aeta) and moved into Borneo (4,500yrs ago) (Dayak). They also split into Sulawesi and progressed into Jawa, and Sumatera. The final migration was to the Malayan Peninsular 3,000yrs ago. A sub-group from Borneo also moved to Champa in Vietnam at 4,500yrs ago.

Interestingly, the Champa deviant group moved back to present day Kelantan. There are also traces of the Dong Song and HoaBinh migration from Vietnam and Cambodia. To confuse the issue, there was also the Southern Thai migration, from what we know as Pattani today. (see also "Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsular")

Of course, we also have the Minangkabau's which come from the descendants of Alexander the Great and a West Indian Princess. (Sejarah Melayu page 1-3)

So the million Dollar Question... Is there really a race called the "Malays"? All anthropologists DO NOT SEEM TO THINK SO.

Neither do the "Malays" who live on the West Coast of Johor. They'd rather be called Javanese. What about the west coast Kedah inhabitants who prefer to be known as "Achenese"? or the Ibans who simply want to be known as IBANS. Try calling a Kelabit a "Malay" and see what response you get... you’ll be so glad that their Head-Hunting days are over.

In an article in the Star, dated: Dec 3rd 2006

available for on-line viewing at:

An excerp is reproduced here below:

"The Malays – taken as an aggregation of people of different ethnic backgrounds but who speak the same language or family of languages and share common cultural and traditional ties – are essentially a new race, compared to the Chinese, Indians and the Arabs with their long histories of quests and conquests.

The Malay nation, therefore, covers people of various ethnic stock, including Javanese, Bugis, Bawean, Achehnese, Thai, orang asli, the indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak and descendants of Indian Muslims who had married local women.

Beneath these variations, however, there is a common steely core that is bent on changing the Malay persona from its perceived lethargic character to one that is brave, bold and ready to take on the world. "

The definition of “Malay” is therefore simply a collection of people's who speak a similar type language. With what is meant by a similar type language does not mean that the words are similar. Linguists call this the "Lego-type" language, where words are added on to the root word to make meaning and give tenses and such. Somehow, the Indonesians disagree with this classification and insist on being called "Indonesians" even though the majority of "Malays" have their roots in parts of Indonesia? They refuse to be called "Malay"…. Anyhow you may define it.

The writer failed to identify (probably didn't know), that the "Malay" definition also includes, the Champa, Dong Song, HoabinHian, The Taiwanese Alisan and the Philippino Aetas. He also did not identify that the "Orang Asli" are (for lack of a better term) ex-Africans. If you try to call any one of our East Malaysian brothers an "Orang Asli", they WILL BEAT YOU UP! I had to repeat this because almost all West Malaysians make the same mistake when we cross the South China Sea. Worse, somehow, they feel even more insulted when you call them “Malay”. Somehow, “kurang ajar” is uttered below their breath as if “Malay” was a really bad word for them. I’m still trying to figure this one out.

Watch “Malays in Africa”; a Museum Negara produced DVD. Also, the “Champa Malays” by the same.

With this classification, they MUST also include the Phillipinos, the Papua New Guineans, the Australian Aboroginies, as well as the Polynesian Aboroginies. These are of the Australo Melanesians who migrated out of Africa 60,000yrs ago.

Getting interesting? Read on...

"Malay" should also include the Taiwanese singer "Ah Mei" who is Alisan as her tribe are the anscestors of the "Malays". And finally, you will need to define the Southern Chinese (Southern Province) as Malay also, since they are from the same stock 6,000yrs ago.

Try calling the Bugis a "Malay". Interestingly, the Bugis, who predominantly live on Sulawesi are not even Indonesians. Neither do they fall into the same group as the migrating Southern Chinese of 6,000yrs ago nor the Australo Melanesian group from Africa.

Ready for this?

The Bugis are the cross-breed between the Chinese and the Arabs. (FYI, a runaway Ming Dynasty official whom Cheng Ho was sent to hunt down) Interestingly, the Bugis were career Pirates in the Johor-Riau Island areas. Now the nephew of Daeng Kemboja was appointed the First Sultan of Selangor. That makes the entire Selangor Sultanate part Arab, part Chinese! Try talking to the Bugis Museum curator near Kukup in Johor. Kukup is located near the most south-western tip of Johor. (Due south of Pontian Kechil)

Let's not even get into the Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Kasturi, Hang Lekiu, and Hang Lekir, who shared the same family last name as the other super famous "Hang" family member... Hang Li Poh. And who was she? the princess of a Ming Dynasty Emperor who was sent to marry the Sultan of Malacca. Won't that make the entire Malacca Sultanate downline "Baba" ? Since the older son of the collapsed Malaccan Sultanate got killed in Johor, (the current Sultanate is the downline of the then, Bendahara) the only other son became the Sultan of Perak. Do we see any Chinese-ness in Raja Azlan? Is he the descendant of Hang Li Poh?

Next question. If the Baba’s are part Malay, why have they been marginalized by NOT BEING BUMIPUTERA? Which part of “Malay” are they not? Whatever the answer, why then are the Portugese of Malacca BUMIPUTERA? Did they not come 100yrs AFTER the arrival of the first Baba’s? Parameswara founded Malacca in 1411. The Portugese came in 1511, and the Dutch in the 1600’s. Strangely, the Baba’s were in fact once classified a Bumiputera, but a decided that they were strangely “declassified” in the 1960’s. WHY?

The Sultan of Kelantan had similar roots to the Pattani Kingdom making him of Thai origin. And what is this "coffee table book" by the Sultan of Perlis claiming to be the direct descendant of the prophet Muhammed? Somehow we see Prof Khoo Khay Khim’s signature name on the book. I’ll pay good money to own a copy of it myself. Anyone has a spare?

So, how many of you have met with orang Asli’s? the more northern you go, the more African they look. Why are they called Negrito’s? It is a Spanish word, from which directly transalates “mini Negros”. The more southern you go, the more “Indonesian” they look. And the ones who live at Cameron Highlands kinda look 50-50. You can see the Batek at Taman Negara, who really look like Eddie Murphy to a certain degree. Or the Negritos who live at the Thai border near Temenggor Lake (north Perak). The Mah Meri in Carrie Island look almost like the Jakuns in Endau Rompin. Half African, half Indonesian.

By definition, (this is super eye-opening) there was a Hindu Malay Empire in Kedah. Yes, I said right… The Malays were Hindu. It was, by the old name Langkasuka. Today known as Lembah Bujang. This Hindu Malay Empire was 2,000yrs old. Pre-dating Borrobudor AND Angkor Watt. Who came about around 500-600yrs later. Lembah Bujang was THE mighty trading empire, and its biggest influence was by the Indians who were here to help start it. By definition, this should make the Indians BUMIPUTERAS too since they were here 2,000yrs ago! Why are they marginalized?

Of the 3 books listed, "Contesting Malayness" (about S$32 for soft cover) is "banned” in Malaysia; you will need to "smuggle" it into Malaysia; for very obvious reasons.... :( or read it in Singapore if you don’t feel like breaking the law.

The other, "Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago, and the Malay Peninsular" (about RM84) are openly sold at all leading bookshops; Kinokuniya, MPH, Borders, Popular, Times, etc. You should be able to find a fair bit of what I’ve been quoting in this book too, but mind you, it is very heavy reading material, and you will struggle through the initial 200+ pages. It is extremely technical in nature. Maybe that’s why it wasn’t banned (yet)…coz our authorities couldn’t make head or tail of it? (FYI, if I wasn’t doing research for my film, I wouldn’t have read it in its entirety)

While the "Sejarah Melayu" (about RM 35) is available at the University Malaya bookshop. I have both the English and Royal Malay version published by MBRAS.

Incidentally, the Professor (Author) was invited to speak on this very subject about 2 yrs ago, in KL, invited by the MBRAS. You can imagine the "chaos" this seminar created...... :(

There were actually many sources for these findings. Any older Philippino Museum Journal also carries these migration stories. This migration is also on display at the Philippines National Museum in Luzon. However, they end with the Aeta, and only briefly mention that the migration continued to Indonesia and Malaysia, but fully acknowledge that all Philippinos came from Taiwan. And before Taiwan, China. There is another book (part of a series) called the "Archipelago Series" endorsed by Tun Mahatir and Marina Mohammad, which states the very same thing right at the introduction on page one. “… that the Malays migrated out of Southern China some 6,000yrs ago…”. I believe it is called the “Pre-History of Malaysia” Hard Cover, about RM99 found in (mostly) MPH. They also carry “Pre-History of Indonesia” by the same authors for the same price.

It is most interesting to note that our Museum officials invented brand new unheard-of terms such as "Proto-Malay" and "Deutero-Malay", to replace the accepted Scientific Term, Australo-Melanesians (African descent) and Austronesians (Chinese Descent, or Mongoloid to be precise) in keeping in line with creating this new “Malay” term.. They also created the new term called the Melayu-Polynesian. (Which Melayu exists in the Polynesian Islands?) Maybe they were just trying to be “Patriotic” and “Nationalistic”… who knows…? After all, we also invented the term, “Malaysian Time”. While the rest of the world calls it “Tardy” and “Late”. It’s quite an embarrassment actually…. Singaporeans crossing the border are asked to set their watches back by about 100yrs, to adjust to “Malaysian Time”…

In a nutshell, the British Colonial Masters, who, for lack of a better description, needed a “blanket” category for ease of classification, used the term “Malay”.

The only other logical explanation, which I have heard, was that “Malaya” came as a derivative of “Himalaya”, where at Langkasuka, or Lembah Bujang today was where the Indians were describing the locals as “Malai” which means “Hill People” in Tamil. This made perfect sense as the focal point at that time was at Gunung Jerai, and the entire Peninsular had a “Mountain Range” “Banjaran Titiwangsa”, as we call it.

The Mandarin and Cantonese accurately maintain the accurate pronunciation of “Malai Ren” and “Malai Yun” respectively till this very day. Where “ren” and “yun” both mean “peoples”.

Interestingly, “Kadar” and “Kidara”, Hindi and Sanskrit words accurately describe “Kedah” of today. They both mean “fertile Land for Rice cultivation. Again, a name given by the Indians 2,000yrs ago during the “Golden Hindu Era” for a duration of 1,500yrs.

It was during the “Golden Hindu Era” that the new term which the Hindu Malay leaders also adopted the titles, “Sultan” and “Raja”. The Malay Royalty were Hindu at that time, as all of Southeast Asia was under strong Indian influence, including Borrobudor, and Angkor Watt. Bali today still practices devout Hindu Beliefs. The snake amulet worn by the Sultans of today, The Royal Dias, and even the “Pelamin” for weddings are tell-tale signs of these strong Indian influences. So, it was NOT Parameswara who was the first Sultan in Malaya. Sultanage existed approximately 1,500years before he set foot on the Peninsular during the "Golden Hindu Era" of Malaysia. And they were all Hindu.

“PreHistory of Malaysia” also talks about the “Lost Kingdom” of the “Chi-Tu” where the local Malay Kingdom were Buddhists. The rest of the “Malays” were Animistic Pagans.

But you may say, "Sejarah Melayu" calls it "Melayu"? Yes, it does. Read it again; is it trying to describe the 200-odd population hamlet near Palembang by the name "Melayu"?(Google Earth will show this village).

By that same definition, then, the Achehnese should be considered a “race”. So should the Bugis and the Bataks, to be fair. Orang Acheh, Orang Bugis, Orang Laut, Orang Melayu now mean the same… descriptions of ethnic tribes, at best. And since the “Malays” of today are not all descendants of the “Melayu” kampung in Jambi (if I remember correctly), the term Melayu has been wrongly termed. From day one. Maybe this is why the Johoreans still call themselves either Bugis, or Javanese until today. So do the Achehnese on the West coast of Kedah & Perlis and the Kelantanese insist that they came from Champa, Vietnam.

Morover, the fact that the first 3 pages claiming that "Melayu" comes from Alexander the Great and the West Indian Princess doesn't help. More importantly, it was written in 1623. By then, the Indians had been calling the locals “Malai” for 1,500 yrs already. So the name stuck….

And with the Sejarah Melayu (The Malay Annals in page 1-3) naming the grandson of Iskandar Zulkarnain, and the West Indian Princess forming the Minangkabau. Whenever a Malay is asked about it, he usually says it is "Karut" (bullshit), but all Malayan based historians insist on using Sejarah Melayu as THE main reference book for which "Malay" history is based upon. The only other books are “Misa Melayu”, "Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa", and “Hikayat Hang Tuah” which is of another long and sometimes “heated” discussion.

I find this strange.

I also find, that it is strange that the "Chitti's" (Indian+Malay) of Malacca are categorized as Bumiputera, while their Baba brothers are not. Why? Both existed during the Parameswara days. Which part of the “Malay” side of the Baba’s is not good enough for Bumiputera classification? Re-instate them. They used to be Bumiputera pre 1960’s anyway.

Instead of "Malay", I believe that "Maphilindo" (circa 1963) would have been the closest in accurately trying to describe the Malays. However, going by that definition, it should most accurately be "MaphilindoThaiChinDiaVietWanGreekCamfrica". And it is because of this; even our University Malaya Anthropology professors cannot look at you in the eye and truthfully say that the word "Malay" technically and accurately defines a race.

This is most unfortunate.

So, in a nutshell, the “Malays” (anthropologists will disagree with this “race” definition) are TRULY ASIA !!! For once the Tourism Ministry got it right….

We should stop calling this country “Tanah Melayu” instead call it, “Tanah Truly Asia”

You must understand now, why I was "tickled pink" when I found out that the Visit Malaysia slogan for 2007 was "Truly Asia". They are so correct... (even though they missed out Greece and Africa)

BTW, the name UMNO should be changed to UTANO the new official acronym for “United Truly Asia National Organization” . After all, they started out as a Bugis club in Johor anyway….

I told you all that I hate race classifications…. This is so depressing. Even more depressing is that the "malays" are not even a race; not since day one."

“Truly Asia Boleh”


Unknown said...

A group of people came to this land a long long time ago when there was no one around and called themselves Melayu, so what right has someone who is only here just a while ago or not even here at all to say that they should not call this place Tanah Melayu? Whats this big deal? If the ancestors come from another part of the world and their language evolved diferently linguistically and they got their religion from some other later migrants and they named this land by another name matching their identity, then this country would be named differently. So what? Why the dissatisfaction over a name? Nothing better to do?

Rockybru said...

there is such a thing as the Malay race, I assure you.

i am a Melayu. a Malaysian Malay.

science can prove it. has proven it. there is such a thing as a DNA Melayu.

but let's not try that because there are many pseudo Malays who will fail the DNA test. and then you'll have havoc!

Jorji said...

sebagai seorang melayu yang memang terkenal sebagai bangsa yang malas membaca......

jadi saya tak baca pun...sebab panjang sangat!

bakaq a.k.a ~penarik beca said...

Artikel ini mai dalam blog saya dah dua kali. saya malas nak layan.

Pertama, sebab saya memang malas. Kalu saya rajin, saya dah jadi DO ka, majistret ka, doktor ka, ahlil-muzik ka...

Kedua, sebab saya peduli apa saya bangsa apa pun. Yang saya tahu, saya cakap Melayu. Cakap orang putih saya tak reti, main hentam saja la Labu saja.

Saya warganegara Malaysia dan jangan cuba nak halau saya dari negara saya.

Kalau saya Melayu, saya bersyukur kepada Allah sebab itulah ketetapan-Nya kepada saya. Kalau saya bukan Melayu, sekurang-kurangnya saya pseudo-Malay yang tak reti cakap bahasa lain selain cakap Melayu.

Masalahnya bukan Melayu, tetapi ketuanan Melayu.

Ketuanan? Ketuanan tu macam mana rupa dia?!!

Anonymous said...

Eleehh... kalau nak trace kita ni semuanya asal pada Adam pun (though some would say that we originated from apes but the point is we came from just one source; apes or Adam; it does not matter) . Jadi why start dekat Indians or Chinese or whoever. Start lah dekat Adam. Baru ada boleh rasa macam Nabi sikit ye tak?

Anonymous said...

Most Malaysian Tamils have known about the ancient indian/hindu roots and influence on this land,i think their fathers always mentioned it to the children and so it was never forgotten. After all the words Bumi-putera are totally of Indian (sanskrit)orgin.Yes, "malai" has always meant "hill" to the Tamils and still is. The Indian seafarers of ages ago did come to this part so it is not surprising of the distinct name given to the "hilly land" people. Of course there are many learned Malays who always have also known about the land's ancient history.



Hey folks,

Actally Bergen was right in telling me that I don't have to publish this guy's long story on the Malays.

Frankly, I've heard it before. Though I've not read the book by that professor from the singapore university.

I know my roots very well -- historically, anthropologically and on folklore (yes that too).

So,think I should close the discussion?
What is there to discuss and debate?
We all know who we are.

I am malay of Javanese/Mendahiling/Persian/Burmese descent.
I am Malay.

zewt said...

i must say i gave up half way... interesting at first but was heading nowhere... i guess when it comes to race... we just should not argue about it.

Anonymous said...

So, it was NOT Parameswara who was the first Sultan in Malaya. Sultanage existed approximately 1,500years before he set foot on the Peninsular during the "Golden Hindu Era" of Malaysia. And they were all Hindu.

What you wrote is indeed true. Even though Hinduism does not convert people, there were an influx of Hindus to countries like Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand, & Indonesia during the time of Chola kings in South India.

Islam arrived in Malaysia during 15th century. Prior to that religion of Malysia was Hinduism.

You can see most of the words still used in Malaysia like “Bumiputra” [son of the soil ] are Sanskrit in origin. The word bahasa came from the Sanskrit word “bhasha”.

Anonymous said...

that was too long that i had to skipped it. but i did read what was written by kak nuraina. so as u said, there is just no point discussing as we all know how melayu we all are.

and i agree with penanak nasik but as i said, no point arguing as these ppl will just twist and turn.


Anonymous said...

tracing from the written history, yes..there were no such things as a malay race..but do note, malay is a new race created to unite all the tribes spoken, originated from the same root..speak in similarity in the same nation..unite under one fact all the people in the world came from, just be proud if you have fortunately become a 'malay'..bcoz if u r not, then who r u?

Anonymous said...


You forgot to mention the Dutch ancestry - the Dewitt - on Ompong's side.

His mother was half Dutch.

A Voice said...

This is just LKY gila kena talak.

To defy the Malay special position in Article 153, LKY claim in his short participation in the Malaysian Parliament circa 1963-65 that the Malays are not original inhabitant or native of Malaysia/Nusantara.

The motive of this study is highly suspect. There is actually a DNA study of Malay in USM. We'll just wait.

Anonymous said...

And all Chinese are Africans if you care to look at their mitochondrial DNA.

Just another pseudo-intellectual Malay-bashing attempt. Nothing special.

Pesanan Keramat said...

Julai 24hb, 2006 Berita Harian

Menjejak Melayu

Oleh Saufi Hamzah dan Mona Ahmad

BENARKAH selama ini Orang Asli dan orang Melayu wujud dari rumpun atau keturunan yang sama?

Jika diamati kajian bertajuk Analisis DNA Mitokondria (MtDNA) masyarakat Melayu Moden dan Orang Asli di Semenanjung yang dihasilkan penyelidik Pusat Pengajian Sains Kesihatan, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Dr Zafarina Zainuddin, mendapati bahawa keadaan sebaliknya berlaku di mana Orang Asli dan orang Melayu berasal dari keturunan berlainan.

Berdasarkan data DNA Mitokondria (MtDNA) yang dikumpulkan dalam kajian itu, orang Melayu Moden dipercayai berasal dari populasi `Austronesian' (atau Selatan Mongoloid) manakala Orang Asli pula adalah saki baki manusia moden dari populasi `Australoid'.

Hasil kajian itu juga disokong oleh kajian linguistik yang menyatakan terdapat dua penghijrahan pra-sejarah utama berlaku di Asia Tenggara.

Gelombang penghijrahan pertama yang berlaku kira-kira 40,000 tahun membawa kemasukkan populasi `Australoid' purba ke kepulauan Indo-Malaysia, yang seterusnya bergerak dan menetap di Australia dan New Guinea.

Gelombang populasi kedua dipercayai berasal dari Fujian atau Zhejian (juga dikenali sebagai Selatan Mongoloid atau Austronesian), yang menetap di sekitar kepulauan Asia Tenggara dan tanah besar kira-kira 4,000 ke 6,000 tahun dulu.

"Kita tidak ubah sejarah, sebaliknya kita sedang mendokumentasikan sejarah. Orang Asli memang lebih tua daripada orang Melayu. Ada banyak orang yang datang ke Malaysia dan banyak yang sudah bercampur," katanya selepas majlis penyerahan dua tesis kepada Jabatan Hal Ehwal Orang Asli (JHEOA) di Bilik Persidangan USM, Georgetown, baru-baru ini.

Satu lagi tesis bertajuk Variasi Pergigian Dalam Populasi Malaysia untuk aplikasi pengecaman identiti manusia yang dihasilkan pensyarah Pengajian Sains Pergigian, Dr Mohd Fadhli Khamis.

Secara umum, kajian bertajuk Analisis DNA Mitokondria (MtDNA) masyarakat Melayu Moden dan Orang Asli di Semenanjung itu adalah untuk mendapatkan maklumat mengenai `genetik make-up' dan pembangunan pangkalan data bagi DNA mitokondria bagi masyarakat Melayu dan Orang Asli.

Pembangunan pangkalan data penting sebelum analisis DNA mitokondria dapat diaplikasi dalam kes-kes forensik yang membabitkan kedua-dua populasi.

Secara tidak langsung, maklumat yang diperolehi dapat digunakan dalam kajian genetik populasi yang membawa kepada penemuan yang menunjukkan perbezaan ketara di antara masyarakat Melayu Moden dan Orang Asli.

Sehingga ke hari ini, belum ada kajian penuh dan menyeluruh berkenaan konstitusi genetik Orang Asli yang dilakukan oleh saintis dari Malaysia.

Dr Zafarina berkata, kebanyakan kajian yang sudah dibuat oleh saintis Barat lebih bersifat untuk mendapatkan informasi berkenaan profil genetik Orang Asli kerana mereka ini adalah antara manusia moden yang tertua yang masih wujud di atas muka bumi.

Kajian berkenaan masyarakat Orang Asli dari Semenanjung Malaysia oleh saintis barat sudah berjaya membawa kepada penemuan beberapa rumusan penting mengenai sejarah pergerakan manusia moden di atas muka bumi ini.

Antara penerbitan terbaru saintis Barat yang menggunakan maklumat daripada kajian Orang Asli adalah rumusan mengenai penyebaran manusia moden dari Afrika ke Asia Tenggara kemungkinan besar berlaku melalui laluan pantai menerusi India dan seterusnya ke Australasia.

Pergerakan itu dikatakan berlaku kira-kira 65,000 tahun dulu.

To be continued ...

Pesanan Keramat said...

Sampel DNA

102 - Melayu moden
58 - Orang Asli


Orang Melayu
Teori Yunan

Secara keseluruhannya alasan yang menyokong teori ini adalah seperti berikut:

Kapak Tua yang mirip kepada Kapak Tua di Asia Tengah ditemui di Kepulauan Melayu. Perkara ini menunjukkan adanya migrasi penduduk daripada Asia Tengah ke Kepulauan Melayu.

Adat resam bangsa Melayu mirip suku Naga di daerah Assam (berhampiran sempadan India dengan Myanmar).

Bahasa Melayu adalah serumpun dengan bahasa di Kemboja. Penduduk Kemboja mungkin berasal dari Dataran Yunan dengan menyusuri Sungai Mekong. Perhubungan bangsa Melayu dengan bangsa Kemboja sekali gus menandakan pertaliannya dengan Dataran Yunan.

Teori popular yang diterima umum. Contohnya, dalam buku Teks Pengajian Malaysia, ada menyatakan "nenek moyang" orang Melayu berasal dari Yunan.

Berdasarkan teori ini, dikatakan orang Melayu datang dari Yunan ke Kepulauan Melayu menerusi tiga gelombang utama yang ditandai dengan perpindahan Orang Negrito, Melayu Proto, dan Melayu Deutro.

Orang Negrito

Penduduk paling awal di Kepulauan Melayu. Dikatakan ada di sini sejak 1,000 tahun Sebelum Masihi berdasarkan penerokaan arkeologi di Gua Cha, Kelantan. Daripada orang Negrito diperturunkan orang Semang yang mempunyai ciri-ciri fizikal berkulit gelap, berambut kerinting, bermata bundar, berhidung lebar, berbibir penuh, serta saiz badan yang pendek.

Melayu Proto

Perpindahan orang Melayu Proto ke Kepulauan Melayu dikatakan berlaku pada 2,500 tahun Sebelum Masihi. Mereka mempunyai peradaban yang lebih maju daripada orang Negrito, ditandai dengan kemahiran bercucuk tanam.

Melayu Deutro

Perpindahan orang Melayu Deutro adalah gelombang perpindahan orang Melayu kuno yang kedua yang berlaku pada 1,500 Sebelum Masihi. Mereka adalah manusia yang hidup di pantai dan mempunyai kemahiran berlayar.

Ini teori yang LKY penipu guna. Bersambung ...

Anonymous said...

i am not a malay. i am not an indian. i am not a chinese. i am not a bidayu. i am not an iban. i am not a kadazan. i am not an orang asli. i am not a mamak. i am not a minangkabau. i am not an arab. i am not a bugis. i am not an achehnese. i am not an orang siam. i am not a mat salleh. i am not a ....

i am a malaysian.
hello my brothers and sisters.

Pesanan Keramat said...

Teori Nusantara

Teori ini adalah disokong dengan alasan seperti di bawah:

- Bangsa Melayu dan Bangsa Jawa mempunyai tamadun yang tinggi pada abad ke-19.

- Taraf ini hanya dapat dicapai selepas perkembangan budaya yang lama. Perkara ini menunjukkan orang Melayu tidak berasal dari mana-mana tetapi berasal dan berkembang di Nusantara.

- Bahasa di Nusantara (Bahasa Austronesia) mempunyai perbezaan ketara dengan bahasa di Asia Tengah (Bahasa Indo-Eropah).

Orang Asli

- Masyarakat Orang Asli adalah komuniti kecil di Malaysia dan penduduk pribumi negara ini.

- Orang Asli adalah masyarakat yang mempunyai beberapa suku kaum yang berbeza-beza.

- Secara rasminya masyarakat Orang Asli dibahagi kepada tiga kumpulan yang terbesar iaitu Negrito, Senoi dan Melayu Asli.

- Suku Senoi dan Negrito pula diklasifikasikan kepada enam suku kecil. Suku Melayu Asli dipecahkan kepada tujuh suku kecil.

- Disebabkan pelbagai suku kaum di kalangan masyarakat Orang Asli, terdapat banyak perbezaan dari segi cara hidup dan pertuturan bahasa yang digunakan.

- Kebudayaan dan adat resam mereka juga berbeza-beza dan mempunyai keunikan yang tersendiri.


Terima kasih a voice kerana beritahu saya mengenai usaha anasir-anasir siber agen Zionis dari Singapura yang ingin membawa huru hara dan merosakkan hubungan baik antara kaum di Malaysia.

Kami, pasukan blogger dari Blog "13 Mei: Dari Kacamata melayu" akan memantau dan berusaha menjawab dakyah-dakyah jahat dari anasir perusuh di sebalik 13 Mei 1969.

IBU said...

Kak Ena,

No intention to discuss this further, but saja lah... gatai nak komen.

I didn't pay much attention during history class last time ( not in most other subjects either.... oh dear!!) But can still vaguely remember about "rumpun" melayu. So ok what? Not from one single root but collection of "the likes". Don't see a reason why one should be depressed about it. Unless of course, understandably, if one is trying, vying, pursuing for or against something, but sanctioned off due to not meeting the "melayu" criteria?

I am quite settled with the fact that I am Melayu with mixed origin - nenek moyang Minang met atok of Arab/India origin. Now married to one with Jawa & Chinese parentage, procreated another 3 (so far) to carry the Melayu lineage. Don't know if there is going to be slight change or any more mixture in the future generation - not for me to see.

And, eh? Are we still calling this land "Tanah Melayu" ? That sounds a bit outdated. Hmmmmm.... ????

Anonymous said...

... yerp!!! totally agree, this is just another intentional malay-bashing article intended 2 provoke... typical of them...

anyway, jgn layan je..

Anonymous said...

I agree with A Voice.

To say the Malays are not a race is to defy Article 153 of the Federation of Malaysia Constitution.

Since 1957, nothing has been changed from that article. It shows the majority of this nation accept Article 153 and its kept pristine in that manner.

Any effort to deny any part of that Article 153 is unconstitutional, including to make a statement such as "Malays are not a race".

Lets try not to be funny and go there. Nothing good will come out of it.

Pa'chik said...

err.. sebelum wujud manusia di tanah besar cina sana, atau di tanah india sana... ada ke bangsa cina? india? atau inggeris, portugis, hatta orang asli/india merah?

adam dan hawa bangsa apa ya?

niconico said...

Bila bangsa lain cuba memperlekehkan bangsa Melayu, kita, orang Melayu akan merasa marah.

Tetapi kenapa, kita, orang Melayu sendiri tidak pernah menunjukan yang sebaliknya. Bahawa kita, orang Melayu adalah kaum yang bertamadun.

Dengki mendengki, hasut menghasut, menjatuhkan sesame sendiri adalah antara sifat yang dikaitkan dengan bangsa Melayu. Kelemahan inilah yang telah di gunakan oleh bangsa lain untuk menjatuhkan dan memporak-perandakan bangsa Melayu.

Jika kita, bangsa Melayu tidak bersatu dan mempertahankan hak Melayu, siapa lagi yang akan mempertahankannya?

Ini hanyalah pendapat saya.

Anonymous said...

kak nuraina,

maknanya selama ni kita sembah yang maha mulia dan teramat mulia adalah keturunan lanun lah yaa, hmmmm macamana ni.lagi satu kalau nak bandingkan dengan Amerika kita lebih kurang juga,but unlike the europeans kita tak jajah dan menindas penduduk pribumi.

Define what is an american?
Whites from europe.
Red Indians.
Immigrant Jews.
African slaves.

saya melayu,budaya dan adab saya melayu,keturunan saya bercampur aduk(bugis,arab dan jawa),bahasa saya melayu.jika ada pihak nak pertikaikan asal usul saya,silakan-buat cara berhemah.sebab bangsa melayu dibesarkan dengan adab sopn dan berbudi bahasa,tetapi perlu diingat bangsa saya kalau dicabar,amuk jadinya.awas ya.

di bangsar tempat kelahiran tanah melayu saya,mat salleh beradab dilayan mesra,mat salleh biadab-jug beer atas kepala.

-jalan maarof-

Original said...

I do agree that there is no Malay Race in the whole world. Actually there is only one Race here that we call ADAM Race.

Anonymous said...

Dear K. Ena

Thx for the article. It makes interesting reading indeed. It has made me even more proud to be a Malay (not that I wasn't beforelah). It goes to show how other races would do anything....anything at all, to belittle the Malays....only because they cannot be one!


A Voice said...

MELAYU - Usman Awang

Melayu itu orang yang bijaksana
Nakalnya bersulam jenaka
Budi bahasanya tidak terkira
Kurang ajarnya tetap santun
Jika menipu pun masih bersopan
Bila mengampu bijak beralas tangan.

Melayu itu berani jika bersalah
Kecut takut kerana benar,
Janji simpan di perut
Selalu pecah di mulut,
Biar mati adat
Jangan mati anak.

Melayu di tanah Semenanjung luas maknanya:
Jawa itu Melayu, Bugis itu Melayu
Banjar juga disebut Melayu, Minangkabau
memang Melayu,
Keturunan Acheh adalah Melayu,
Jakun dan Sakai asli Melayu,
Arab dan Pakistani, semua Melayu
Mamak dan Malbari serap ke Melayu
Malah mua'alaf bertakrif Melayu
(Setelah disunat anunya itu)

Dalam sejarahnya
Melayu itu pengembara lautan
Melorongkan jalur sejarah zaman
Begitu luas daerah sempadan
Sayangnya kini segala kehilangan

Melayu itu kaya falsafahnya
Kias kata bidal pusaka
Akar budi bersulamkan daya
Gedung akal laut bicara

Malangnya Melayu itu kuat bersorak
Terlalu ghairah pesta temasya
Sedangkan kampung telah tergadai
Sawah sejalur tinggal sejengkal
tanah sebidang mudah terjual

Meski telah memiliki telaga
Tangan masih memegang tali
Sedang orang mencapai timba.
Berbuahlah pisang tiga kali
Melayu itu masih bermimpi

Walaupun sudah mengenal universiti
Masih berdagang di rumah sendiri.
Berkelahi cara Melayu
Menikam dengan pantun
Menyanggah dengan senyum
Marahnya dengan diam
Merendah bukan menyembah
Meninggi bukan melonjak.

Watak Melayu menolak permusuhan
Setia dan sabar tiada sempadan
Tapi jika marah tak nampak telinga
Musuh dicari ke lubang cacing
Tak dapat tanduk telinga dijinjing
Maruah dan agama dihina jangan
Hebat amuknya tak kenal lawan

Berdamai cara Melayu indah sekali
Silaturrahim hati yang murni
Maaf diungkap senantiasa bersahut
Tangan diulur sentiasa bersambut
Luka pun tidak lagi berparut

Baiknya hati Melayu itu tak terbandingkan
Selagi yang ada sanggup diberikan
Sehingga tercipta sebuah kiasan:
"Dagang lalu nasi ditanakkan
Suami pulang lapar tak makan
Kera di hutan disusu-susukan
Anak di pangkuan mati kebuluran"

Bagaimanakah Melayu abad dua puluh satu
Masihkan tunduk tersipu-sipu?
Jangan takut melanggar pantang
Jika pantang menghalang kemajuan;
Jangan segan menentang larangan
Jika yakin kepada kebenaran;
Jangan malu mengucapkan keyakinan
Jika percaya kepada keadilan.

Jadilah bangsa yang bijaksana
Memegang tali memegang timba
Memiliki ekonomi mencipta budaya
Menjadi tuan di negara Merdeka

I agree with my friend eWoon that we should ideally identify ourselves first as Malaysian and not by our respective race.

It is not natural for human tend to identify with the smaller entitles like family, relative, suku kaum, race, ... before bigger thing like state or nation.

The spirit of what eWoon, as I understand, is saying is that we should look at another person as a person and not stereotype them by their race.

I think the first step is to be able to open up and speak to each other (off course dengan budi bahasa or you will see a Malay wave anything that comes their way).

Then we as individual shd learn to befriend and enjoy each other as company. Most important is to be fair to each other without consideration of race.

As Malay, I plead there shd be a halt to quickly jump and get into an attacking mode by making unfair stereotyping and generalisation, hurtful and sweeping statements of Malay as this and that.

Malay have some recurring bad habits but look, we are embrasive (if not global) and open people. Our forefathers wouldn't be seafarers and be first to encircle the world if we are close minded.

Believe me, to engage a Malay is not to attack them. You will not get anywhere with a defensive or an attacked Melayu. Their silence is not approval and agreement. Read this sajak. THis sajak will make you understand Melayu. Chinese and colonial business interest knows this very well.

Touch a Malay's religion and his honour, blood is not an expense to defend it.

Walski69 said...

I am a racist, and to me, one, and only one race matters - the Human race.

And no DNA, Linguistics or Anthropological study is gonna change that fact...

Anonymous said...

It's good that as a result of this piece of telling information. Telling, at least for the uninitiated, that now everbody runs back to identify with the Adam race. I suppose at the end of the day we are really Bangsa Malaysia, since Adam formed Bangsa Sedunia.


BaitiBadarudin said...

I noticed this comment on Malaysia Today but was too busy to entertain the commentor.
Like A Voice (from the Brick), I suspected that it was LKY's agenda to negate the Malays' claims to Singapore and the Malay peninsula.
And like bubur cha-cha, we could also 'contest' 'Chineseness' and 'Indianness' by tracing their roots to Africa!

Anonymous said...

Dear Nuraina,

This is a bit late but I just can't resist posting a comment on this. I am not a Malay but my life-long best friend is. We were classmates in Penang and our friendship has withstood the test of time. During our school days, I think I spent more time at her house (where I pitched a permanent tent) than my own. I now assume the role of a second mother, albeit long-distance, to her two children.

I have this to say to those who'd like to "contest" Malayness; stick your anthropological hypothesis where the sun doesn't shine. There is such a thing as the Malay race, my best friend is no phantom.

Anonymous said...

Further to Sesat's comments, honestly i will like to say as a non malay that the malays are a graceful people. My dad who retired in the 70's was a Ktm employee had a handful of malay friends.During festivals we enjoyed each other's company.I still have a wood crafted elephant toy given to me by Machik Ros after her trip back to her kampung and the jam cakes that she used to send to our family house during hari raya will always be craved for.


Anonymous said...


Maybe you are a malay of Javanese/Mendahiling/Persian/Burmese descent. But one thing for sure, you are a hottie ;p;p

Penanak Nasik

Anonymous said...

I'm glad there were so many comments so far on this page. My intent for the original posting was not to incite, but to educate. Give me a moment please..

The classification for the Malays not being a race is because the current government criteria for a malay is "... anyone who speaks malay, dresses like a malay, professes Islam and takes part in malay culture..."

That is not how you define a race...

All races are defined by heriditary, geneology or DNA. Not by what they do or which religion they profess to be part of a race.

That is exactly why all anthropologists cannot define the malays as a race. While it is true that we are all part of the Human race, the Malaysian government has confused race with other issues, while greedy politicians have greatly benefitted from this "race classification" for the past 50years.

I'm actually very happy that most here believe that we are all part of the human race. Please let your Menteri-Menteri know about this and abolish race-based politics. Let Bangsa Malaysia prevail, where we can all stand equally proud next to each other and face more pertinent issues against non-Malaysians.

Thank you my dear fellow Malaysians for your kind audience.

Anonymous said...

I do sincerely apologise to those of who who confessed that it was tiresome reading the extremely long post, It is of a serious nature, and not one of guessing and false conclusions. For those who prefer reading less, here's the short version.

Anthropologists cannot define "malays" as a race because they are of Caucasoid (European), Africanoid (African), Mongoloid (Chinese), and Indian descent.

Races are not defined that way. They also cannot be defined by the way they dress, act, speak, or by the religion they profess. That is not a race clasification any more than you would recognise "Bangsa Skinheads".

Races are defined by hereditary, genetic, or DNA tracing. And the DNA Malay testing will reveal that any individual "malay" will fall under one or more of the above clusters. Of course every single race in the world originated from the East African Adam, but that too is of another discussion.

The people exist. But they are not a race. What we term "the malays" will always fall into one of the above group clusters. Even Mahatir will be found to have Indian blood, and Badawi, to have Chinese blood. Pn Endon (god bless her) will have Japanese blood. Nik Aziz will have Vietnamese blood, The Sultan of Selangor has Bugis blood, the Sultan of Kelantan and Perlis has Siamese blood and so on so forth. (and they are extremely proud of it)

Nuraina, please look at your own list of ancestry. It falls into more than one of the above clusters. It means that you have mixed ancestry. Also, look at ibu's lineage. Keep digging, and you will find much similarities with every malay. Is that bad? no. But it fails the "race classification" except for the Human race which I'm so thrilled that all of you agree upon. Let's live that way then.....

There is nothing to be angry about. There is nothing to be sad about. There is nothing to be ashamed about. This is just one of those British classification which have gone wrong because they were defined prior to DNA testing days. (Or perhaps they didn't care. They just wanted to exploit Malaya at that time... who knows?.....)

Look at Pesanan's digression... it fully agrees with all that was written in my post. As long as you take the facts and examine it, it will agree. Let not one just create stories based on whims and idealic fancies...

It is therefore very important that you please read those books first. Their authors have presented their case very clearly and systematically based on archaeological proof. Even Malaysian University Professors know this for a fact. Their own studies have shown the same exact details as that which I posted. After all, they are university textbooks.

As for the Zionists, they are too busy proving that Jesus Christ did not rise from the dead, so let's keep them out of this discussion.

Anonymous said...

One final comment on Pesanan's post... The negritos come form Africa. So do the Senoi's. In fact the term Negrito literally transalates from Spanish meaning "mini Negros". They are from the Australo Melanesian migratory group from as early as 60,000yrs ago. All other Indonesian migrants were only as recent as 3,000yrs ago.

Anonymous said...

I am now wiser now about the subject matter than before, and that is,i believe, the good reason for the original posting and indeed i am sure for the subsequent posting at 3540-To constructively inform and educate.Otherwise, what we will have is roots sunk in sandy soil instead of good soil as far as information/facts is concerned. What Detective Sherlock Holmes said to his assistant Watson ie."Elementary, Watson,Elementary" does help recalling here.


Anonymous said...

Malays are a race. Period.

I mean, Malay = Indigenous Malaysian in the extensive interpretation P. Ramlee and the founding fathers upheld.

9W2XYZ said...

I read the comments, the articles and the constitution with interest.

I am alarmed by the range of reactions. As far as I am concerned --- any reader is better off ignoring the ANONYMOUS writers. If you do not have the cajones to id yourself, your ideas cannot be all that worthwhile.

Personally as a chinese here. I fail to identify with the Malay doctrines and the attendant claim of supremacy. Which is fine.

I will not join the armed forces to fight for this county because it will not fight for me.

I understand that there is no such thing as a race Malay. Actually while it makes interesting reading... it is actually non relevant to my condition here.

What is more interesting is the the subjugation and marginalization of other races in Malaysia has produced NONE of the intended results.

The current driver for change in the racial divide is Malay? Proto Malay? Annuar Ibrahim? Do I just have to sit back and watch water attain its own level? I think so.

Even China is bowing down to world opinion. Massive market mah.... embargoes lah.

So in retrospect, any policy, law, mandate, culture that cannot be transparent or be critically examined... will be due for a re-make or become extinct.

Think about it. You look at diasporas...

You have the Jews.
You have the Indians.
You have the Chinese.


maybe its more culture than race eh?

Happy Blogging....

Anonymous said...

Mengikut keterangan yg aku dpt kat internet ada menyatakan 4 jenis warna manusia. White, Black, Yellow and brown.

“Brown in complexion, medium in stature and maritime in habits, these people left their cradle land somewhere in Asia, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra or India. The true origin of the Malay race cannot be definitely ascertained today”. (‘Early Philippine History’, Zaide).

The Hon. W. Marsden in his ‘History of Sumatra’, London, 1811, expressed the view that they originated from Sumatra.

“Who is the civilised Malay, or as he is also termed, the Deutro-Malay or Coast Malay, of Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Male, Borneo, Celebes,….. and other islands?

This broad headed individual with more or less Mongolian features – is the proto Malay with many foreign strains… many of the aborigines were proto-Malay maritime folk.” (Malays – ‘Cultural History’ by Sir Richard Winstedt, p. 15).



I'm BROWN color what 'urs

Anonymous said...

I find it interesting to find the discussion about who is a Malay? The answer is simple, just as the Malaysian Constitution says, Malays are those who speak Malay, follow the Malay customs and the Islamic faith.

Therefore, to be a Malay has nothing to do with race. It is an ethnic identity based on religion.
To be a Malay one must be a Muslim, speaks Malay and follow Islam. Just as Ali Rustam says, it is very very easy to become a Malay. Even Indians, Arabs and Chinese can become Malay.

Malay, as a racial concept has an obscure beginning. Perhaps, one possible explanation is that the ocncept began with the arrival of the Indians conquerors who subjugated most of Southeast Asia in the early 7th to 14th century.

There was a place called Melayur in South India. Internet search found the word Melayur means hills or mountain range in the Malayalam or Malabar Tamil language.

Perhaps, these Indians from melayur brought the name of their place to Southeast Asia, intermarried with local women in Sumatera.

Their descendents found great Malay kingdoms or civilization. One of their earliest kingdom stretched from Sumatera to Tumasik in Southern Peninsula Malaysia.

Parameswara who founded Melaka and converted to Islam was one fo them. Sejarah Melayu rightly pointed out the Melayur Kings claimed to be descendants of Alexander the Great. According to history, Alexander the Great conquered India and left his legacy in India. His descendents, the Asoka Kings, for instance, invaded much Southeast Asia and founded the Melayur Kingdom.

A story "Udruga Wijaya Malasingha" by Ramli Abdul Halim which discussed history mentioned about the an empire called Melayur.

"Udruga Wijaya Malasingha juga adalah cucu kepada Raja Skrantayang memegang kuasa pemerintahan Empayar Melayur meliputi Tumasik hingga ke Bangkok, Campa atau Kemboja, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Sunda dan seluruh Semenanjung Tanah Melayu."

While Malay as a race and language is now an accepted reality, the term continue to be debated. Anthropologists use the term to denote a race who speaks Austronesian Malayo Polynesian language, which probably originated from Borneo.

Incidentally, scientific study has shown that while the Modern Malays were genetically of Indian, Arab or Chinese race, the Mongoloid looking Malays are related to the people of cosatal Borneo.

Dr Zafarina studies on genetics showed mMalay people migrated from Borneo to Sumatera and then to Peninsula Malaysia. I have attached part of her writings below.

Human Genome Center , School of Health Sciences and Dental School , USM
CURRENT STATUS OF PROJECT: Ongoing ( started : Jan 2005 )
Principle Investigator: Dr. Zafarina Zainuddin
Co-researchers: Dr. Zilfalil Alwi, Prof. Abd. Rani Samsudin, Miss Azlina Ahmad,
Dr. Bakiah Shaharuddin, Dr. Liza Sharmini Ahmad Tajudin, Mr.
Hoh Boon Peng, Mr. Mohamad Ros Sidek, Dr. Nizam Abdullah,
Prof. Norazmi Mohd. Nor, Assoc. Prof. Ooi Keat Gin,
Panneerchelvam, Dr. Zainul Ahmad Rajion, Prof. Zainul
The Malay race inhabits particularly Peninsular Malaysia and portions of adjacent islands of Southeast Asia (SEA), east coast of Sumatra , coast of Borneo and smaller islands between these areas. They were traced by anthropological evidence from the north-western part of Yunnan , in China . The proto-Malays were seafaring people, probably from coastal Borneo who expanded into Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia as a result of trading and seafaring activities. The present day Malays, called Modern Malays of Peninsular Malaysia and coast of the Malay Archipelago are a mixture of different races. They were described as deutero-Malays, descendants of the proto-Malays mixed with modern Indians, Thai, Arab and Chinese. The history and the origin of the Malay race have been the subject of much speculation among scholars. Since the Malays primarily reside within SEA, particularly Peninsular Malaysia, the prehistoric migrations into these regions must be taken into consideration. Several hypotheses of the SEA migration pattern have been put forward. Preliminary studies using mitochondrial DNA analyses suggested affinity of the Southern Mongoloid in the Modern Malay population of Peninsular Malaysia (Zafarina, 2004). The term Melayu or Malay‚ was also associated with the Hindu-Buddhist Srivijaya Empire (7th-13 centuries CE) believed to be located in the South-eastern part of Sumatra . An Arab text dating around 1000 CE observed that travellers bound for China sailed through the sea of Melayu‚ that can be inferred to mean the Straits of Melaka. On opposite shores of the Straits of Melaka by the 7th century CE or earlier, there were the domicile areas of the Malays, namely Sumatra and the Malay Peninsular.
1. To compile the genetic profile of the Malay race.
2. To study the history, social and anthropology of the Malay race.
3. To characterise the craniofacial, dental and ocular features of Malay race.
4. To correlate the genetic profile of the Malay race with their craniofacial, dental and
ocular characteristics.
5. To correlate the genetic profile of the Malay race with its history, social and
6. To trace the origin of the Malay race by using the genetic profile, anthropology,
craniofacial, dental and ocular characteristics.
The research encompasses four parts of studies: The Historical and Socio-cultural Analysis, the Ocular Morphology Analysis, the Craniofacial Morphology Analysis, and the last major part, the Genetic Analysis. Various types of genetic markers are used in the study of the genetic components of the population. These markers are autosomal and Y chromosome STR markers, mtDNA, Human Leucocytes Antigen (HLA) and lastly, the SNP genotyping which will be done using the Microarray 50K genechip system.
1. The tracing of the origin and the migration pattern of the Malay race.
2. Establishing USM as a part of the member of Pacific Pan-Asian SNP Initiative (PASNPI) organized by Human Genome Organization (HUGO)"

Dr Zafarina studies is one of the most cnclusive evidence of Borneo origins of the Malay race. They are not called Malay in Borneo, but Dusuns or Dayaks.

Dr Zafarina traced the genetic migration of the Dusunic speaking people of Borneo southwards in Borneo and along the way producing other tribes such as the Lun Bawangs, Bidayuhs, Ibans, etc. The Bidayuhs in turn migrated to Sulawesi and found the Bugis people. When the Dayaks or Dusun reached the southern tip of Borneo, they simply crossed over to Jawa and Sumatera.

Scientist has concluded that the Expres Train theory that the Malay race come from Taiwan were now discredited. Scientist found genes found among Polynesians (Hawaii)were not found among the indigenous Taiwanese. This shows the connection is missing.

Instead the theory goes that the Malay people who migrated from Indo China reached the coast of Borneo where the race and language of the Malayo Polynesian incubated. It was from Borneo that people migrated out to Taiwan, the Philippines and the rest of Insular Southeast Asia and the pacifics and the Indan ocean.

The proto Malays of Borneo were once great seafarers, reaching as far away land as Madagascar. Their migration led them to other Islands brought them to Sumatera, Jawa, Sulawesi, and then to the Pacifics Islands.

Incidently, the Malagasy language in Madagascar is closest to Maanyan language of Barito Kalimantan. But Manyan is closest to Dusun Witu of Barito which is alsmot 80% similar to the Dusun language of the Penampang and Papar Sabah dialect.

Dusun is about 30% similar to modern Malay. We know that modern Malay is only 30% indigenous, the rest were derived from or enriched by Sanskrit (Indian language), Arabs (during Islamic influence) and Chinese.

But the 30% indigenous are almost all similar to Dusun language in terms of sound and meanings. The followings are some Dusun/Malay similarity.

Eg mato for mata, tolingo for telinga, todung for hidung, dilah for lidah, siku for siku, longon for lengan, kulit for kulit, tonsi for isi, raha for darah, tulang for tulang, wulu for bulu, pusod for pusat, tuhat for urat, wotis for betis, etc.

Other words, kayu for kayu, watang for batang, roun for daun, bunga for bunga, tuah for buah, etc

others, wulan for bulan, watu for batu, tana for tanah, sawat for sawat (as in pesawat), osin for masin, onsom for masam, po'it for pahit, omis for manis, apui for api, matai for mati, pais for pisau, etc.

others, iso for sa, duo for dua, apat for empat, limo for lima , onom for enam, etc.

others, palanuk for pelanduk, buayo for buaya, lipos for lipas, tikus for tikus, tontolu for telur, ulanut for ular, etc

There are hundreds of words that form the indigenous part of the Malay language.

The dusun origins of modern Malay is something to be researched further. The dusunic speaking people are quite widespread. The Bisaya of Sarawak are dusunic people, also the dusuns of Tutung and Belait Brunei. In Barito, Kalimantan, the several dusunic speakers are related to the dusunic language.

Even the Bajau language and most visayan dialects in the Philippines can be traced to the dusunic langauge. According to Dr Zafarina, the dusuns produce the Bajau people (interesting). This correspond with the legend among Visayans that they came from Borneo.

It is ironic that the dusuns today are not constitutional Malay though scientific evidence now showed the Borneo origins of the Malay language.

The dusuns who populated Borneo did not found great civilization in Borneo. The credit must be given to their descendents who migrated to Sumatera and eventually became Malays through intermarriage with the more culturally advance Indians to form the seeds of the melayur kingdom.

Today it is true being Malay is a pride to many Malaysians. But the Malaysian Constitutional definition does not make them racially Malays. Officially, the word Malay is a religious identity, not a racial identity.

Ironically, the only other people who defined their ethnic identity in terms of religion are the Jewish people. Even Arabs recognize Arab Christians as Arabs. But in Malaysia, one has to be a Muslim to be a Malay.

The Malaysian constitutional definition excludes Javanese, Filipinos, and other indigenous in Southeast Asia who are malayo polynesian speakers as Malays because they do not fulfil the constitutinal definition.

The Malaysian definition of a Malay reduced the number of ethnic Malay to just 25 million people wolrd wide.

Thus, the Malay history also started only with the advent of islam in the 14th century. Malay did not exist before the advent of Islam.

The term Malay was popularized by western anthropologists based on their readings of Sejarah Melayu, however, distorted.

The term Malay is now very popular, used even by President Gloria Aroyo to identify her Filipino racial heritage. Unfortunately, may be she did not know, but the Malaysian Malays would have disputed her. She does not fulfill the Malaysian Constitutional definition to be a Malay.

Unless Malaysia change its constitution to make Malay a racial identity for Malayo Polynesian people, then the narrow definition would make the term Malay relevant to a small group of people in a sea of 300 million Austronesian Malayo Polynesian speakers.

As of now, to be a Malay is just like to be a Jew, where ethnicity is defined by religious identity.

Anonymous said...

orang cina dari china, orang india dari india...dari lautan yg berbeza...mana2 kat dunia pun dia orang ada...bukan seorang dua tapi berjuta, berbillion...

org melayu berapa juta eh?sikit jek ...yg penting asal dari lautan ini..tolonglah jgn jadikan isu sampai nama melayu kena tukar jadi mcm bugiscinaindiaaetashanglipohjakun...panjang la woi nak letak dalam ic...hehehe klakar la korang ...ada2 aje nak jadi isu..

Anonymous said...

Interesting article.

If I may say, I think what it actually does is point out to a couple of things.

To be informed on where we came from does not imply understanding ourselves. Because it serves to show us that everybody has more or less the same physiology, the same emotional needs, the desire to be treated equally, the desire for shelter, the desire to belong and to procreate.

I think the issue isn't so much about whether you are Melayu or I am Chinese. Because I am certainly not going to be welcomed in China as a Chinese citizen. I am Chinese but I don't belong in China, I am a Malaysian.

But what really worries me is the Ketuanan Melayu, I feel that every race on this soil came from somewhere, we are in fact so international, so, why does one race get the sovereignity when we have the United nations right here in our own backyard?

Do the malays need to berjuang, for what? We all hum to Dewi, I try my best to sing Isabella. Most of us think that Lee Hom is a sissy. We all have to face tough bosses or wife or jealous boyfriend. If we are all citizens of Malaysia, hence Malaysians. Should we all berjuang together-gether?

This issue on identity has us all looking away from what is a political programing. Ideologies that introduce definition and concept that the people subscribe to so the people in power can dispense "important" messages and homogeneity, while conveniently compartmentalizing resources.

How did you think the May 13 started? it was purely economical,
a case of costs, which has ballooned into racial inequality.

I believe we should look more closely before we dole out a verdict on what is essentially an intelligent observation of our origins.

And please keep politics out of anthropology. It is a tool to trace and learn about humankind, which is now the kink in life. Oil fields, osama, bush, sooner or later a Hilter wannabe is going to come crawling out of our country.

Know why we are drinking alot of Milo ais? go figure guys.

I like Nuraina, I think she is the Man!

Anonymous said...

Mungkin ramai di antara kita yang salah faham tentang asal usul bangsa Melayu yang sebenar. Melayu berasal dr perkataan Empayar Melayur yang merupakan pechahan daripada Kerajaan Sri Wijaya yang memerintah seluruh Asia Tenggara (Indochina, Thai, Kemboja, Tanah Melayu, Sumatera, Filipna, Sri Lanka, Jawa dan Sulawesi). Kerajaan Sriwijaya sebenarnya berpusat di Kelantan-Pattani dan bukannya di pulau Jawa sebagaimana anggapan ramai orang.

Kerajaan Champa (berasal dari perkataan Champaka) juga merupakan pecahan dari kerajaan Sri Wijaya dan Majapahit I. Bahkan dua Candi terbesar dunia iaitu Angkor Wat & Borobudur merupakan teknologi yang diwarisi dari senibina Sriwijaya (kerajaan Melayu asal). Malahan bahasa asal Melayu adalah dari bahasa Sanskrit spt perkataan Raja, putra, Dewa, negara dsbnya.

Kelantan atau Medang Bhumi atau Kalatana merupakan sebuah kerajaan Sri Wijaya yang merupakan pusat pemerintahan Sri Wijaya satu ketika dulu yang memerintah seluruh Nusantara. Itulah sebabnya kita dapati permainan Wayang Kulit, Puteri, Makyong, kain Batik boleh di dapati di Jawa dan Kelantan. Ini adalah kerana selepas Empayar Melayur di kalahkan oleh Kerajaan Sukhothai, pusat pemerintahan kerajaan Melayu berpindah ke pulau jawa menjadi Kerajaan Majapahit II.

Raja Sakti yang memerintah Kerajaan Champa satu ketika dulu merupakan saudara kepada Raja Pattani-Kelantan. Kerajaan Pattani (Majapahit I) pernah memerintah seluruh Nusantara termasuk seluruh Semenanjung, Sumatera dan Pulau Jawa). Itulah sebabnya satu ketika apabila Parameswara membunuh Gabenor Pattani di Temasik(Bukannya Gabenor Siam sebagaimana dalam buku sejarah), kerajaan Pattani (Majapahit) menghantar bala tentera mencari Parameswara dan beliau telah melarikan diri ke Pelambang dan akhirnya ke Melaka. Kisah Hang Tuah pergi berperang membantu Majapahit sebenarnya tercatat dalam Sejarah Kelantan-Pattani, di mana beliau telah membantu kerajaan Pattani menentang angkatan Perang Siam. Itulah sebabnya nama Hang Tuah masih wujud di wilayah Pattani seperti Pintu Gerbang Hang Tuah, Telaga Hang Tuah.

Soalnya siapa bangsa Melayu sebenar ? Bangsa Melayu merupakan campuran pelbagai bangsa yang mempunyai budaya dan bahasa serumpun. Tapi kini, bangsa Melayu dikhususkan kepada bangsa yang mengamalkan cara hidup Melayu dan bertutur dalam bahasa Melayu dan mestilah beragama Islam (walau pun sekarang ini, ramai Melayu dah jadi bukan Islam).

Apa yang saya nak beritahu di sini, sebenarnya bangsa Melayu merupakan bangsa yang bertamaddun tinggi dengan kebolehannya membina candi-candi terbesar dunia, ahli pelayaran yang mahir (itulah sebabnya Colombus, terpaksa mengambil seorang orang Melayu bernama Awang untuk menjadi penasihatnya bagi membolehkannya belayar mengelilingi dunia dan menjumpai benua Amerika). Bahkan benua Australia telah lama diduduki oleh bangsa Melayu, namun kerana keadaan iklimnya yang lebih sejuk, membuatkan orang Melayu tidak berminat utk tinggal di benua itu sehinggalah datang mat-mat saleh dari Eropah menjajah benua itu.

Anonymous said...

The same thing can be done/researched for the origins of other races, e.g

Celts etc...

And they are still the core of the race in their country. When you write this, it is as if, Malays are really not worthy of this status of Bumis. Even though they have made a whole empire (Malacca) for a few hundred years. Malays are the host of the Golden Khersonese.

The Perak Man (stone-age human remains) is a Malay. This showed Malays are the original dwellers in the malay peninsula.

AbgTuah said...


Bangsa Melayu keturunan Polynesia telah ujud di Nusantara dan Semenanjung Melayu ini sejak 2000 hingga 3000 tahun dahulu.

Bukti kewujudan mereka ini adalah ujudnya kerajaan Melayu dahulu kala, iaitu Pan-Pan, Tambralinga, Langkasuka,Chi-Lan-Tan dan Phe-Heng.

Ketika itu penduduk Kerajaan Melayu mulanya menganut agama Buddha atau ateis, kemudian menganut agama Hindu apabila Asoka mula menghantar Mubaligh untuk mengembangkan ajaran Hindu.

Perlu diingat, bahawa kerajaan melayu ketika itu beragama Hindu, tetapi bukan berbangsa India dan bukan berbahasa Tamil, sebaliknya berbangsa MELAYU dan BERBAHASA MELAYU KUNU.

Wahai Bangsa Melayu Malaysia, ingat bahawa bangsa kita lebih awal dan tua dari bangsa Thais, Tibetan-Burma, Vietnam, Srivijaya.

Kaji, dan teruskan mengkaji.

Anonymous said...

i Think you need to study more about Malay have been living in prejudice towards malays since your non-malay friends keep influence about malay right in this land. Once times ago,Malays especially in Kedah were Hindus but they WERE NOT INDIA.THEY HAVEN'T any root connecting to MERONG MAHAWANGSA.THAnKS.



i'm one of those who know my history very well.

i take acception to any allegations that i am influenced my my non-Malay friends about malay rights etc..

i do not post the issue in my blog. i allowed this article to run in my blog for no other reason except that someone had written it. perhaps it was a mistake, i don't know.

again, you don't know me at all.

Anonymous said...

Dear Nuraina,

I humbly thanked you for this posting.
I'm so glad that this writing has valuable input, knowing my ancestors better.

Nampaknya kebanyakan manusia di sini menafikan fakta sejarah keturunan mereka sendiri, walaupun dengan bukti-bukti saintifik dan fakta. sebilangan besar lebih rela memberi label baru kepada diri masing.

Anonymous said...

saya pelik & hairan.. kemana rujukan agama? bukan kaum yang jadi persoalan tapi agama.. so rujuklah pd agama yang meliputi segala pengetahuan.. ISLAM.. sila rujuk pada ulama2, kitab2, hadis2.. kemana tersebarnya keturunan Ibrahim.. disitulah bermulanya satu nama 'melayu', semegah dan seawal Himalaya.. seluas perjalanan Iskandar.. rujuk la pada agama.. disitulah keturunan kita..

Anonymous said...

New DNA evidence overturns population migration theory in Island Southeast Asia

Yunnan theory is false, its the other way round. People of Southern China came from Borneo/Malaysia/Indonesia/Philippines.

Anonymous said...

so the malays are actually from planet mars!!! 300 years from now Tan Sri Syed Kecik (late) was actually a chinese becoz of the Tan in his title. Very Interesting!

Unknown said...

Melayu is a term to describe a multi-ethnic dedication toward a news islamic culture.

So the keyword is 'islamic culture.'

Thus, Malays by definition is a group of Muslims who inhabit Asia lands descending from multi-ethnic ancestors.


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SiamangBukit said...

Malays ancestors to Chinese and IndiansI?
The concept of Malay race was mooted as early as 18th century. Also see HUGO project forwarding the idea 'malays' migrated and populated china and re-populated India .

SiamangBukit said...

Also should be very interesting tanaserim is actually Tanahseri the land of Malay who speaks the Malay Kedah and Perlis dialect.(wiki)
they still proud to be called a Malay
Though they will
Call themselves as Myanmarese of Malay descent.

Anonymous said...

mengapa ramainmanusia skg msi keliru dgn ADAM dan HAWA.masi rami yg berkata bahwa kita asalnya dr keturunan ADAM dan HAWA.bapa sbhgian dr bangsa Asia Barat ialah Abraham/ ibrahim.Abraham hidup kira 1900 sebelum masihi.jd secara kasarnya abraham telah wujud kira2 4000 tahun dahulu.jikalau kita lihat dr salah sila ketrunrn Adam sampai Nuh dan smpi kepada Adam...Adam wujud beberapa puluh ribu atau ratus ribu taun dahulu dan x melebihi sejuta taun dahulu mengikut kira2 kasar.sedangkan manusia homo sapiens pertama di gurun kahalari afrika sudah wujud kira2 2 juta tahun dahulu.akibat dr bencana,mereka mengalami evolusi pemikiran dan barjuang tuk hidup.mereka mulai berhijrah ke ethiopia dan ke mesir seterusnya ke asia barat.manusia sebalum bencana itu belum layak dipanggil sebagai manusia homo sapiens(manusia bijak) berikutan cara hidup mereka yg masi agak primitif.setelah letupan besar di karakota,bumi diliputi kabut hingga landskap kalahari menjadi tandus dan kurang makanan dan minuman.menurut saintis,landskap tandus ini menjadikan manusia yg hidup primitif sblum ini mjd bijaksana melelui suatu proses evolusi minda apabila mereka mulai kebuluran dan berjuang tuk hidup lalu.mereka bermigrasi ke utara yg punyai banyak makanan dan air.dr struktur anatomi,manusia modern/homo sapiens wujud kira2 500 oo0 tahun dahulu.menurut saintis, dari afrika mereka ke asia barat,dan dari asia barat mereka berpecah ke eropah,ke india,ke asia tenggara dan sbgainya.dr india mereka ke rusia timur,dari rusia timur mereka ke alaska(amerika dan rusia suatu ketika dulu bersambung) lalu turun ke amerika selatan menjadi org2 indian....kita secara saintifik adalah keturunan manusia homo sapiens dari kingdom ANIMALIA, dr phylum CHODRATA,dr kelas MAMALIA,dr order PRIMATES,dr keluarga HOMINIDAE,dr tribe HOMININI,dr genus HOMO,dan dr spesis HOMO SAPIENS.dan jumlah kita skrg adalah kira2 7 bilion world wide...

dan kata ADAM yg berasal dr kata bahasa semitik itu sendiri bukanlah merujuk kpd suatu individu singular,tp menunjukan sesuatu yg lebih dari 1 tw lebih tepat merujuk kepada ramai org.dan kisah cerita ADAM dan HAWA sbenarny lebih merujuk kepada cerita perkembangan bangsa2 di asia berat dan sejarah perkembangan bangsa semitik dan langsung tiada kaitan dgn melayu,dusun,bugis,jawa dan sbagainya.dan soal ADAM dan HAWA sbgai manusia pertama itu sndiri kurang tepat dan masih dlm perdebatan oleh para pakar.ini kerana sebelum adam ada sudah ada manusia lain.BIBLLE dlm KITAB KEJADIAN menceritakan bagaimana kain iaitu anak ADAM yg telah dikutuk Tuhan telah mengembara di sebelah timur dan bertemu dgn manusia lain dan berkahwin dgn gadis manusia2 tersbut.

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Unknown said...









Unknown said...

Allah dah sebut dalam Al-Quran... bahawa manusia dicipta berbangsa-bangsa.. fikir2kanlah...

Anonymous said...

Kalau ikut dr Kitab Kejadian, Mulayu mungki berasal dr keturunan Heth Bin Kanaan Bin Ham Bin Nuh....Ham dan keturunannya pernah dilaknat dan diceritakan segala yg bersifat suci seperti wahyu, nabi2 dan rasul tidak akan diberi kepada jalur keturunan Ham (asian n african).

Unknown said...

Tuan / Puan yang dihormati.

Sedikit penjelasan mengenai perkara yang dibincangkan di dalam blog ini.

Melayu adalah bangsa
Malaysia adalah Tanah Melayu
Islam adalah agama orang Melayu
Bahasa Malaysia adalah Bahasa Melayu
Mereka yang lahir di Malaysia adalah Bangsa Malaysia.

* Sesiapa yang tidak mahukan mengaku ataupun menjadi bangsa Melayu, bolehlah kiranya menjadi bangsa Malaysia. Yakni mungkin berlawanan dengan pekara- pekara diatas ataupun kekal sebahagiannya.

* Tiadalah salah kiranya sesuatu bangsa itu mentadbir tanah airnya sendiri dan disokong oleh mereka yang menganggap ianya sebagai tempat tinggal mereka jua.

* Bangsa Melayu tidak menafikan kewujudan bangsa lain di tanah asal mereka dan tidak menindas bangsa lain yang berhijrah ke Tanah Melayu sejak zaman berzaman. Kerana itulah jangan ditanya apakah di dalam tangan orang Melayu kerana mereka tidak suka bertanya kepada bangsa lain tentang apa yang mereka genggam. Jika sudi kita kongsi bersama.

* Bangsa Melayu kekal berada di dalam pencapaian yang baik selari dengan arus pembangunan dan kemajuan dari dahulu sehingga akhir hayat dunia. Oleh itu jangan direndahkan kebolehan, sumbangan dan pentadbiran orang Melayu di tanah airnya mahupun di peringkat antarabangsa.

* Apapun genetik atau etnik asal sesuatu bangsa, mereka pun boleh menjadi Bangsa Melayu sekiranya mengamalkan cara hidup orang Melayu. Jelasnya Bangsa Melayu mengamalkan sikap yang terbuka dan murni tampa meminggirkan sebab asal usul untuk menjadi bangsa Melayu.

Maaf jika ada yang tersinggung dengan cara begini.

Anonymous said...

Banyak sangat ikut teori mat saleh.Esok keluar lain dia pun cakap oo macam itu ,penemuan baru.

antihipokrit said...

Aku bugis campur jawa...Dan aku MELAYU..ada aku kisah orang asing nak kata Apa?..woi tok nenek moyang aku pun tak kecoh..ngko Micheal chick bodoh serupa barhal, berani ko kata aku bukan Melayu?..ehh..ada pulak org bukan Melayu nak ajar org..pegi mampos, ada aku kesah..